CNS PHOTO | L'OSSERVATORE ROMANO VIA REUTERS
Pope Benedict attends a ceremony and signing of his apostolic exhortation on the Middle East at the Melkite Catholic Basilica of St. Paul in Harissa, Lebanon, Sept. 14.
When Pope Benedict stepped off the plane in Beirut Sept. 14, he said he had come to Lebanon, and to the Middle East in general, as a "pilgrim of peace."
In five major talks over the next three days, the pope repeatedly called for peace and underscored the role of Christians in promoting it.
Yet his most eloquent message of hope to the troubled region lay not in the diplomatic language of his public statements, but in his very presence and the response it evoked from his hosts.
Throughout his trip, Pope Benedict limited himself to general statements of principle on the most contentious political issues, and he avoided some topics altogether.
His insistence that religious freedom is a basic human right and a prerequisite for social harmony was a bold statement in the context of a region where most countries restrict and even prohibit the practice of any faith besides Islam.
But like the document he came to Lebanon to present, a collection of his reflections on the 2010 special Synod of Bishops dedicated to Christians in the Middle East, the pope said nothing specific about where and how the region's Christians are regularly deprived of that right.
The pope twice deplored the human cost of the civil war in neighbouring Syria, but his only practical recommendation for an end to the fighting there was a neutral call to end the importation of military arms, which he called a "grave sin."
With regard to religiously inspired violence, the pope made a single generic reference to terrorism and a possible allusion to the subject in the statement that "authentic faith does not lead to death."
Christian youth urged to stay in Middle East
CATHOLIC NEWS SERVICE
BKERKE, LEBANON – Pope Benedict urged young Christians in the Middle East not to flee violence and economic insecurity through emigration, but to draw strength from their faith and make peace in their troubled region.
The pope spoke Sept. 15 to some 20,000 young people from several Middle Eastern countries gathered outside the residence of the Maronite patriarch in Bkerke.
The pope pleaded with young Middle East Christians, whose population is diminishing across the region, not to abandon their homelands.
"Not even unemployment and uncertainty should lead you to taste the bitter sweetness of emigration, which involves an uprooting and a separation for the sake of an uncertain future," he said.
"You are meant to be protagonists of your country's future and to take your place in society and in the Church."
Offering encouragement, the pope invoked the inspiration of the first Christians, inhabitants of the Middle East who "lived in troubled times and their faith was the source of their courage and their witness."
Pope Benedict said nothing at all about the incendiary subject that dominated news coverage in the run-up to his trip: an American-made anti-Islamic film that had inspired often-violent protests in at least a dozen Muslim countries, including Lebanon.
Awareness of that furor no doubt heightened the caution with which the pope treated the most volatile topics during his trip. Ironically, the crisis may also have helped him to get his message across.
CNS PHOTO | PAUL HARING
Men celebrate after Pope Benedict arrives at the Baabda Presidential Palace for meetings with Lebanese leaders southeast of Beirut Sept. 15.
With turmoil over the movie spreading across the Middle East, the papal visit suddenly became a much more dramatic and thus more appealing story to the secular press, which probably gave it more coverage as a result, observed Msgr. John Kozar, president of the Catholic Near East Welfare Association, who attended the papal events.
For the Lebanese, the pope's willingness to travel in spite of security concerns - he told reporters on the plane from Rome that he had not considered canceling the trip and that no one had advised him to do so - powerfully underscored his commitment to the country and the region.
"The mere fact that the Holy Father came at this difficult moment is an indication that Christians here are not forgotten," said Habib Malik, a professor of history at Lebanese American University.
The pope's visit served as a showcase for Lebanon, which for years was a model of peaceful coexistence and religious freedom in the Middle East.
The show of enthusiasm across sectarian and political lines, in a nation still recovering from the 1975-90 civil war, was a dramatic statement of unity to the outside world and to the Lebanese themselves.
Epitomizing the welcome by Muslim leaders, Lebanon's grand mufti gave Pope Benedict a written message stating that "any attack on any Christian citizen is an attack on Islam."
As Lebanon's Daily Star newspaper reported Sept. 17, Lebanon President Michel Suleiman cited the unanimity among political factions over the weekend in arguing that the "way to capitalize on the pope's visit is via dialogue."
Pope Benedict would no doubt agree, while limiting his short-term expectations.
As he told the president in his arrival speech, Lebanese society's "equilibrium, which is presented everywhere as an example, is extremely delicate.
"Sometimes it seems about to snap like a bow which is overstretched or submitted to pressures which are too often partisan, even selfish, contrary and extraneous to Lebanese harmony and gentleness."
What precisely those pressures might be, the pope prudently declined to say.